QbD principles and strategic thinking can reduce the time required to optimize formulation.
Predictive model development
In the optimization phase, a predictive model is developed for the system that can be used to find useful operating conditions using response surface contour plots and perhaps mathematical optimization. The result is the design space.
The end result of each of these sequences is a completed project. There is no guarantee of success in a given instance, only knowledge that the DoE strategy will “raise your batting average” (8). The strategy used depends on the experimental environment, which includes the objectives of the experimental program, the nature of the components (Xs) and responses (Ys), resources available, quality of the information to be developed, and the theory available to guide the experiment design and analysis. A careful diagnosis of the experimental environment along these lines can have a major effect on the success of the experimental program.
Martinello et al. (9) presented a pharmaceutical tablet study that investigated the formulation involving the compound paracetamol, which was known to have poor flowability (a measure of how well the materials flow through the tableting equipment) and compressibility properties. The study involved seven ingredients, varied over the ranges that are shown in Table II.