In this work, a bottom-up approach based on the study of polyelectrolyte interactions was performed in order to evaluate the effect of Prosopis alba exudate gum as novel excipient for fish oil encapsulation in composed calcium-alginate-chitosan beads. Emulsion and beads properties such as oil distribution, encapsulation efficiency, yield, microstructure and thermo-oxidative protection were evaluated. Alginate and gum exert a synergistic effect on emulsion stability properties, which conducted to better oil distribution in the beads and higher encapsulation efficiencies (98%) and yield (89%). The positive effect of including the gum as wall material was observed in terms of a higher oil retention capacity of the alginate beads, improved oxidative thermal stability and better microstructural features. Present results are promising and allowed considering P. alba gum as a novel non-conventional polyelectrolyte for improving Ca-alginate beads microstructure and stability with the added benefit of taking advantage of an available resource currently untapped.